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MAPK/Erk in Growth and Differentiation

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MAPK/Erk in Growth and Differentiation

Pathway Description:

The MAPK/Erk signaling cascade is activated by a wide variety of receptors involved in growth and differentiation including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), integrins, and ion channels. The specific components of the cascade vary greatly among different stimuli, but the architecture of the pathway usually includes a set of adaptors (Shc, GRB2, Crk, etc.) linking the receptor to a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SOS, C3G, etc.) transducing the signal to small GTP-binding proteins (Ras, Rap1), which in turn activate the core unit of the cascade composed of a MAPKKK (Raf), a MAPKK (MEK1/2), and MAPK (Erk). An activated Erk dimer can regulate targets in the cytosol and also translocate to the nucleus where it phosphorylates a variety of transcription factors regulating gene expression.

Selected Reviews:

We would like to thank Prof. John Blenis, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, for reviewing this diagram.

created January 2003

revised October 2012

Acetylase
Acetylase
Metabolic Enzyme
Metabolic Enzyme
Adaptor
Adaptor
Methyltransferase or G-protein
Methyltransferase or G-protein
Adaptor
Apoptosis/Autophagy Regulator
Phosphatase
Phosphatase
Cell Cycle Regulator
Cell Cycle Regulator
Protein Complex
Protein Complex
Deacetylase or Cytoskeletal Protein
Deacetylase or Cytoskeletal Protein
Ubiquitin/SUMO Ligase or Deubiquitinase
Ubiquitin/SUMO Ligase or Deubiquitinase
Growth Factor/Cytokine/Development Protein
Growth Factor/Cytokine/Development Protein
Transcription Factor or Translation Factor
Transcription Factor or Translation Factor
GTPase/GAP/GEF
GTPase/GAP/GEF
Receptor
Receptor
Kinase
Kinase
Other
Other
 
Direct Process
Direct Process
Tentative Process
Tentative Process
Translocation Process
Translocation Process
Stimulatory Modification
Stimulatory Modification
Inhibitory Modification
Inhibitory Modification
Transcriptional Modification
Transcriptional Modification
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