For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v nonfat dry milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised November 2013
Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
posted June 2005
revised June 2016
Protocol Id: 263
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
Atg2A Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total Atg2A protein.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Glu750 of human Atg2A protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Autophagy is a catabolic process that results in the degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents within autophagosomes and lysosomes. The control of autophagy involves proteins encoded by a set of autophagy-related genes (Atg) that were originally characterized in yeast (1). Research studies in yeast indicate that Atg2 is essential for autophagy and the retrograde transport of Atg9 through an interaction with Atg18 (2-6). Two human Atg2 homologs (Atg2A, Atg2B) are critical for autophagosome formation as silencing of both results in the accumulation of unclosed autophagic structures (7). Starvation-induced autophagy targets Atg2A to the initiation site of autophagosome biogenesis, where it associates with DFCP1, WIPI-1, and other autophagy-related proteins (8).
Atg2 proteins also function in lipid droplet metabolism as depletion of both Atg2A and AtgB results in changes in the size, number, and distribution of lipid droplets (7,8). These morphological changes in lipid droplets are not observed in Atg5-depleted cells, suggesting that this function is independent of the role of Atg2 in autophagy (7). Starvation-induced autophagy directs Atg2A (along with Atg14L) to localize to early autophagosomal membranes enriched in PI3P, while another subpopulation of Atg2A and Atg14L localizes to the lipid droplets independent of autophagic status (8). An increase in Atg2A expression during etoposide- and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis suggests that Atg2A may be a useful indicator of topoisomerase II inhibitor-mediated apoptosis (9). Mutations in the corresponding Atg2B gene are associated with gastric and colorectal carcinomas with high microsatellite instability (10).
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