|H M R Mk||Endogenous||40||Rabbit|
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised November 2013
Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
posted June 2005
revised October 2016
Protocol Id: 10
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
Atg3 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Atg3 protein.
Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey
Chicken, Xenopus, Bovine, Dog
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the amino terminus of Atg3. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and referred to as autophagy-related genes (Atg). Formation of the autophagic vesicles involves two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, Atg12-Atg5 and Atg8-phosphatidylethanolamine (Atg8-PE), which are essential for autophagy and widely conserved in eukaryotes (2). There are at least three Atg8 homologs in mammalian cells, GATE-16, GABARAP, and LC3, that are conjugated by lipids (3,4). Lipid conjugation of Atg8 and its mammalian homologs requires Atg3 (Apg3p/Aut1p in yeast), an ubiquitously expressed E2-like enzyme (5-7). Following C-terminal cleavage by the cysteine protease Atg4, the exposed glycine residue of Atg8 binds to the E1-like enzyme Atg7, is transferred to Atg3, and then conjugated to phophatidylethanolamine. Atg3-deficient mice die within 1 day after birth and are completely defective for the conjugation of Atg8 homlogs and autophagome formation (8).
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