Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated (-) or treated with Mitomycin C (MMC) (2 μg/mL, 24 hr; +). ATR inhibitor VE-821 (10 μM; +) and/or ATM inhibitor KU55933 (10 μM, +) were added 1 hour prior to MMC treatment. Western blot was performed using Phospho-ATR (Thr1989) Antibody (upper) or ATR (E1S3S) Rabbit mAb #13934 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from 293T cells transfected with an expression plasmid encoding a Myc/DDK-tagged fragment of either WT or T1989A mutant human ATR. Western blot was performed using Phospho-ATR (Thr1989) Antibody (upper) or Myc-Tag (71D10) Rabbit mAb #2278 (lower).
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v nonfat dry milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised November 2013
Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
posted June 2005
revised June 2016
Protocol Id: 263
Phospho-ATR (Thr1989) Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of ATR protein only when phosphorylated at Thr1989.Species Reactivity:
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr1989 of human ATR protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) are PI3 kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members that phosphorylate multiple substrates on serine or threonine residues that are followed by a glutamine in response to DNA damage or replication blocks (1-3). Despite the essential role of ATR in cell cycle signaling and DNA repair processes, little is known about its activation. ATR was long thought to exist in a constitutively active state in cells, with DNA damage-induced signaling occurring via recruitment of ATR to single stranded DNA and sites of replication stress. Phosphorylation of ATR at serine 428 in response to UV-induced DNA damage has been suggested as a means of activating ATR (4,5). Recent work has shown autophosphorylation of ATR at threonine 1989. Like ATM Ser1981, phosphorylation of ATR Thr1989 occurs in response to DNA damage, indicating that phosphorylation at this site is important in ATR-mediated signaling (6,7).
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